Surgeon in Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary,

Assistant Clinical Professor, Harvard Medical School

Medical Director Associate Eye Physicians and Surgeons, Inc

Articles

Applications

The applications of botulinum toxin have been extensive. Originally the drug was used to treat crossed eyes (strabismus) and involuntary eyelid closure.  From this prospective, changes on the muscular of the face associated with eyelid and peri-ocular injections led to the observation and application for the reduction of muscle tone generated wrinkles of the upper face. Further the effect on muscles being regional led to applications in involuntary movement and neck spasms (torticollis) as well as spasticity of the limbs     (from strokes and cerebral palsy).  Muscle based applications led to the discovery of a unique pain relieving property which has been used for the purpose of treating a number of headache and muscle pain disorders, including migraine, chronic tension headaches, TMJ disease, and certain type of neck pain.

 Botulinum toxin is thought to have a number of anti-inflammatory properties which have also been useful in regional inflammatory conditions. 

 The drug has been used to treat certain forms of bowel spasms and internal spasms.

 Treatment of hyperactive sweating, salivary glands and other secretions have been treated with this drug.

Gary E. Borodic. MD

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